What is operating system and its functions and types with Features?

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What is Operating System? This is such a question which is in the mind of every student who wants to go into the field of computer. So today in this article we will know what is Operating System is, and all the important information related to it in Hindi. Everything needs an operating system to run. As some of the popular operating systems are as follows, iOS, Android and Windows are the most commonly used operating systems.

But how do they work, what are their uses, and what are the features of the operating system? There is much such information related to them that you probably do not know yet. But I sincerely hope, if you read this article very carefully, then you will get all the important information related to it in this article and you will not need to read any other article. 

What is Operating System? 

Operating System (OS) is a type of software that acts as an interface between computer hardware components and users. If we understand the operating system in simple language, it means that it is connected with all the hardware inside the computer. It is the system software of the whole computer, which is also known as “OS”. The operating system acts as an interface between the user and the hardware. If we understand it with an example, it means that whenever we open any file on our computer

So for that, we have to click the mouse button on any file on the computer, only then does that file open. Apart from this, if we have to type something in the computer, then we type by pressing the button of the keyboard, after which we see the words on the screen of the computer, then all these things happen with the help of the operating system. This simply means that the user is able to work only with the operating system of the computer. Nothing can be done on a computer without an operating system.

Operating System Meaning in Hindi

To understand the operating system in easy language, you should understand its meaning. Whenever we take a new computer, we get to see Windows inside it, which can be any Windows 7 8 or 10. This window is a type of operating system. In the same way, if we talk about Apple’s laptop, then it has Mac OS inside it. Our computer or laptop cannot start without an operating system. The operating system displays the words you type on the screen.

Apart from this, its function is to process any data and show its output. All the applications and programs on your computer are inside the operating system. If for some reason there is some fault in your operating system, then none of your applications are able to work. The way a computer has an OS, in the same way, there is an operating system in a mobile phone, the mobile’s OS is called Android.

What are the main functions of operating system

By now you have come to know, what is the operating system? But many people have a question, tell the functions of the operating system. So now we will learn about the functions of the operating system. When we start our computer, first of all, we see the logo of the operating system, after that it is loaded in the primary memory of the computer and comes in front of you. So let’s know, the complete details of the functions of the Operating System in Hindi –

1. Memory Management

The operating system manages memory management. Because the computer has Primary Memory and Secondary Memory. Here there are all such data inside the primary memory, through which the CPU runs. Let us know how the operating system manages all these memories –

  • When we open many files in our computer at once, then there is a lot of Loud on the memory. In this situation, the operating system itself decides with its AI, how much memory is to be given to which program.
  • Memory is required to do any work in the computer, which the OS provides.
  • OS also decides how much memory has to be given to which software to the primary memory installed in your computer.
  • When we finish all the work in the computer, after that the OS stores all the memory with itself.

2. Processor Management

Like the operating system memory, processor management also manages. This means, whenever we do multi-programming on our computer, then the operating system processes each program accordingly. It makes some programs open quickly, and in some, it puts the processor on schedule. Processes scheduled in this way are automatically added to the program. In such a situation, it is also a function of the OS.

It first checks whether the processor is empty or not. If you want to see your processor, whether it is working now or not, then you can go to Task Manager by pressing CTRL + ALT + Delete button on your computer or laptop. To update all the software in our computer, the OS puts the processor in that work. The function of the OS is to keep the computer completely updated.

3. Device Management

There are many types of devices inside the computer, which are managed by the OS. In which there are also many types of drivers. Such as WiFI Driver, Bluetooth Driver, Sound Driver, etc. Apart from this, there is also some Input and Output Device. All these are managed by the OS. For example, on giving the command to print out from the printer, the operating system directly processes the data to the printer, after which the print comes out from the printer.

4. File Management

The operating system is very important for doing file management. Because there are many directories inside the file, with this we can find any data very easily. Whenever you have to find any of your files, then you go and type the name of that file in File Explorer, after which the OS gives you information about that file, and also tells in which folder that file is kept. happened.

5. System Performance

The operating system keeps on optimizing the performance of our computer from time to time. How long does it take to process a file, all this information is saved inside the OS.

6. Security

Operating System protects your computer from unauthenticated access if you put a password inside it. When you turn on your computer, you are asked the password you have entered, only after that, you are able to do something on the computer. Apart from this, if you give your computer to someone else, and he tries to see your saved password in Chrome browser, he is still asked for the same password that you have set in your OS.

7. Error Troubleshooting

Sometimes some error starts coming in our computer, in such a situation we do not know, what we should do to fix this error. Some errors are automatically fixed by the operating system. And for those who do not fix the error, they provide you the option of troubleshooting.

8. Operating System Types

Operating systems are used for many types of technology, including computers, satellites and many types of industries. So let’s know, how many types of operating systems are there –

  • Batch Operating System
  • Network Operating System
  • Multiprocessor Operating System
  • Real-Time Operating System
  • Disk Operating System
  • Simple Batch Operating System
  • Multiprogramming Operating System
  • Distributed Operating System
  • Time-Sharing Operating System

1. Batch Operating System

In the beginning computers were not like they are today. At that time the computer machine used to be very big, which was run by the console. Line printers, tape drives, and five cards were used to output data from it. Apart from this, card readers and tape drivers were also used to input data. Inside these systems, the user did not have any kind of interface with the machine, in this the work execution was done in a batched system.

Such systems were called Batched Operating Systems, and the user had to create a job to execute. In the 1950s to 1960s, there were no developed computers or operating systems like today, these computers did not even have secondary memory devices. Rather, data were processed using large mainframe computers in these operating systems, in which magnetic tapes and punch cards worked to output and input data.

All the earlier systems lacked hard disks. Batch operating system used to eliminate setup time issues. The first Batched Operating System was launched by General Motors Research Laboratories, the first single-stream batch processing system that executes one task at a time and sends data in batches and groups. Batched Operating Systems used to be the most popular in the 1970s.

At that time people had only one computer, which was known as a mainframe. At that time the users who used the batch operating system did not interact directly with the computer. The user used to use a punch card to perform his work. To increase the speed in the operating system, the jobs are executed in groups. When the program is left to the operator, the operating system automatically sorts programs with similar requirements into batches.

2. Network Operating System

Network Operating System performs the function of server in the network. Network Operating System provides its facilities to all those computers, which are connected with that computer by a network. Let us understand this with a simple example. Suppose your network computer is connected with a printer, in such a way that all the computers that are connected with the computer in the network connection with the printer, you can print through all those computers.

Through Network Operating System, you can communicate with multiple computers simultaneously. With the help of which File Sharing, Printer Sharing and Hardware Devices, etc. can be communicated. In the old times, when computers were introduced, Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac Operating Systems were not made for Single Computer Usage and Network Usage. But as new technology started coming, in the same way, many improvements were made in Computer Networks and many updates were done in Operating System as well.

Types of Network Operating System –

There are mainly two types of Network Operating System, P2P which is installed in the computer, and second Client-Server Model which is connected with the machine, Server and Client Software is installed in it. Let us now know, in detail about the type of Network Operating System in Hindi –

P2P Peer to Peer

Peer to Peer network operating system allows the user to share all such network resources, which are saved in a commonly accessible network location. In this process, all devices are treated equally on the basis of functionality. P2P is very easy to set up, it works for all types of LANs.

Client Server

Client-Server requires more technical maintenance. It is very difficult to install it. It costs more to install than P2P. Its best feature is that it can be centrally controlled. Any change in it can be done easily. Apart from this, you can add any kind of additional technology inside it.

3. Multiprocessor Operating System

Through Multiprocessor Operating System, we can run two or more Central Processing Units inside any computer. All CPUs in a multi-processing system work in a single unit, which is connected with a high-speed wire called Buses. Their main purpose is to increase the processing capacity of the computer.

Advantages of Multiprocessor Systems 

High Speed Processing

Multiprocessing Operating System increases the speed of the computer. When a user is on a multiprocessing operating system while doing his work, and he gives a command, then the command given by him is processed at a very high speed. This operating system processes maximum data in a very short time.

Reliability

As already mentioned to you, more than two CPUs are used in a multi-processor system. And the brain of a computer is its CPU. If the CPU fails, then the whole system shuts down. But if you have a multi-processor system, then here even if one of your CPUs goes bad, then your system does not shut down, although there is some problem, the whole work is not stopped by you.

Enhanced Throughput

When multiple processors work simultaneously, the throughput of the system increases. Due to which the speed of performance of the system also increases. In such a situation, the output of the command given by the user comes very quickly.

More Economic Systems

If you are thinking of buying a separate computer to do a big task, then it is better that you should buy a multi-processing system, as it will be cheaper for you. Here you can keep the storage of all your data in one place. Apart from this, you can also connect resources like Power Supplies together, so that your electricity bill will also come down.

4. Real-Time Operating System

Real-Time Operating System comes in the most advanced operating system because it processes the work in real-time. It is used to do Railway Ticket Booking, Satellite, and other such activities which require Real-Time. If the system delays even one second while doing such work, it can cause a lot of damage. There are two types of Real-Time OS, which include Hard Real-Time and Soft Real-Time Operating systems.

Hard Real-Time Operating System finishes its work at the same time at which it is given the task. The same Soft Real-Time Operating System delays its work a bit, if you are already doing a task here, and in the meantime, you give it another task, then it will leave the first task and give more to the new task. Gives priority.

5. Disk Operating System

Disk Operating System (DOS) was first created by IBM company. Originally two versions were made of it, which were the same. But these two are known by different names, DOS made by IBM was launched as PC-DOS and DOS made by Microsoft was launched as MS-DOS. Every computer works under its own operating system, all computers need an OS. The operating system which takes the help of Disk for its work, this type of system is called Disk Operating System.

6. Simple Batch Operating System

Simple Batch Operating System is a common OS, under which the CPU performs only one task at a time. When the user gives a command to the computer, it first performs that task, which was previously run inside it. When processing the second command given by the user. This type of processing system is called Simple Batch Operating System.

7. Multiprogramming Operating System

Multiprogramming Operating System and Multiprocessor Operating System are generally the same. In Multiprogramming Operating System, two or more programs can be run at the same time. In a multiprogramming operating system, when a user gives a lot of instructions at once, then the computer executes all the outputs at high speed, this increases the quality of the computer’s performance. In this operating system, more than two programs are run simultaneously in the computer’s primary memory or RAM. Because of which the CPU always has a task for execution, and the CPU is always on the task. Due to which full utilization of CPU can be done.

Multiprogramming Operating System The Central Processing Unit (CPU) works very fast from one program to another, due to which the user feels that all the tasks are being done simultaneously. Although this does not happen at all, it executes all the programs one by one, all the rest of the tasks are waiting on the computer’s RAM. All these tasks are done very fast, if the RAM of your computer is more, then it will have more capacity to store the task, and the performance of your computer will also be better. That’s why there are more computers that do more work, more RAM and space is used in it.

8. Distributed Operating System

A Distributed Operating System is a group of independent computers of a type. All the computers connected under it can also be in one place, or it can also be in another place. This type of OS is also called Distributed Computing. In this, the computers that are connected at one place are connected to the Local Area Network (LAN). And the computers which are far away and at different places are connected by Wide Area Network (WAN).

All these computers use Message Passing, which is a type of communication message, to coordinate for connecting to each other. In this way, all of them work together for Goal Attainment. There are many types of devices connected inside the Distributed System, which include Personal Computers, Virtual Interface, Mini Computers, etc., but still, it shows only one computer in the end to the user.

Distributed System Example: Let us understand Distributed systems with an example, the Internet is used all over the world, but the Internet is not run by anyone Central Computer. Rather, it runs with the help of multiple computer networks spread all over the world. After which it comes to the user after processing many networks and servers. But the processing behind it cannot be seen, all this activity is part of the distributed system.

9. Time-Sharing Operating System

Time-Sharing is done for the task by the operating system to complete each task under the Time Sharing Operating System. So that all the tasks can be completed correctly. It can contain both Single User Task and Multi User Task. Whenever the OS completes a task, the time it takes to complete that task is called Quantum. Time Sharing Operating System also has many advantages. Under this, all the tasks are there, equal time is given to complete all the tasks. In this CPU time is also very negligible Idle.

Names and Information of Major Operating Systems

So far you have learned about many important information about Operating System. Now know, which are the most popular operating systems in the world. Although most people must have heard about Windows iOS and Android, but apart from this there are many other operating systems. So let’s know, complete information about all OS in Hindi –

1. Windows
2. MacOS
3. Linux
4. ChromeOS
5. Android
6. iOS
7. BlackberryOS
8. Symbian

1. Windows

Windows is the world’s most popular and most used personal computer operating system in the whole world. Which is used by all computer users today. There are many versions of Windows, in which Windows XP, Windows 7, 8, 10 are the most used versions. Windows shared its OS with Nokia Mobile. However it was not much success. Microsoft is popular all over the world for its Windows. Microsoft owner Bill Gates is also one of the most influential people.

2. MacOS

MacOS is the most used operating system after Windows OS. This is Apple’s OS. Which comes in all Apple computers, including MacBook, iMac.

3. Linux

Linux is a free operating system used. Which is completely Open Source. It does not have any kind of subscription. It is usually used for PC, but apart from this, Linux can also be installed in Mobile, Gaming consoles and Smart TV. This is also a very popular operating system. Which is mostly used in Super Computer.

Linux is a free and open-source operating system. Which you can use for free. Although basically, it is a PC OS. But along with PC, it is also used in Mobile, Smart TV, Gaming Console, and many other devices. You can guess its popularity from this point! That most of the world’s top-500 supercomputers work on Linux OS.

Linux also provides better security, it does not contain any kind of virus. Nor can any kind of Trojans and Virus be attacked in it. Because of which its security makes it better than other OS. It is very smooth.

4. ChromeOS

ChromeOS is a type of operating system, although many people may be thinking of Chrome browser after hearing the name of Chrome. But let us tell you that ChromeOS is an operating system made by Google. Which is used in PC and Mobile, with the help of this you can use Android Apps in your PC.

5. Android

Android is a mobile operating system, which is used the most all over the world. Android is also the world’s largest OS because its market share is 71%. This OS is based on Linux Kernel, which is generally made for smartphones, tablets. Android has come in many versions. Below you have been given the List of All Android Versions. Which you can read –

  • Android 1.0
  • Android 1.1
  • Android 1.5 Cupcake
  • Android 1.6 Donut
  • Android 2.0 Lightning
  • Android 2.2 Froyo
  • Android 2.3 Gingerbread
  • Android 3.0 Honeycomb
  • Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich
  • Android 4.1 Jelly Bean
  • Android 4.4 KitKat
  • Android 5.0 Lollipop
  • Android 6.0 Marshmallow
  • Android 7.0 Nougat
  • Android 8.0 Oreos
  • Android 9 Foot
  • Android 10
  • Android 11
  • Android 12

6. iOS

iOS is an operating system, which is present in all the phones of Apple. It is the second most used and popular OS after Android. The full form of iOS is iPhone Operating System. It is used in iPhone, iPad, and iPods.

7. BlackberryOS

Blackberry is a mobile operating system, which is found in all BlackBerry smartphones. It used to be a very popular OS at one time. But at present, the Blackberry Operating System has stopped. Nowadays Android and iOS are in high demand.

8. Symbian

Symbian was once the world’s number 1 mobile operating system. But as Android came, Symbian could not compete with it, due to which it has completely lagged behind. However, if Symbian also updated itself according to the time, it could be possible that like Android and iOS, today Symbian could also be seen in our smartphones.

Frequently asked questions about Operating Systems –

What is another name for operating system?

The operating system is the system software, whose other name is OS.

What is the main function of operating system?

The main function of the operating system is to improve the performance of the computer, and it is also the task of the OS to make the use of the computer easy and simple.

Which was the first operating system?

The first operating system is the Disk Operating System, which was a normal OS, it did not have any kind of graphics, it used to do its work on the command line.

When was the first operating system developed?

The world’s first operating system was the Macintosh Operating System, which was first launched in 1984. Inside which (Graphical User Interface) GUI was used. Which was used in Apple’s computer until 2001, after which it was developed under the name Mac Operating System.

Note – This article was based on What is Operating System. In which you have been provided with all the important information related to the working of the operating system and its types, in Hindi. If you have any kind of question-related to this article, then you can tell us by commenting. If you liked this article, then please do share this article with your friends, thank you.

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